Copy style guide.

Everyone who works for CJP also — in some capacity — writes for CJP. Having a style guide helps us communicate consistently and use the same language to reach our community with a unified voice. 

Within this guide, you’ll find the answers to frequently queried stylistic standards and naming conventions, as well as aids to navigate tricky grammatical pitfalls. 

In general, CJP follows the AP Stylebook, with deviations noted here. 

Check back for updates. Language is always evolving, and our style guide will do the same. If you have any questions or comments, please get in touch with Kate

CJP-specific programs, departments, and partners

Affinities Groups / Professional Networks

Families with Young Children  

Financial Services

Healthcare Professions Network

Healthcare Innovations Network  

Lawyers & Accountants

The Cardozo & Accountants Society

Real Estate, Construction & Design 

The King Solomon Society 

Women’s Philanthropy 

Maimonides Society 

Pomegranate Society  

Lion of Judah 

Young Adults 

Chai Society 

Ben-Gurion Society 

American Jewish Joint Distribution

Committee (JDC) Anti-Poverty Initiative 

Annual Campaign  

Board of Directors 

Birthright Israel 

Boston-Haifa Connection (BHC)  

The Boston Media Room 

Bridge to the Future Fund 

Caring & Social Justice (CSJ) 

Chai Society, see Affinities, Young Adults  

Charity Navigator 

CJP Legal Aid Fund for Immigrants (CLAFI)

Combined Jewish Philanthropies (CJP)  

Communal Cybersecurity Program  

Communal Security Initiative (CSI) 

Community Campaign 

The CommUNITY Israel Dialogue  

Donor Advised Funds 

Dor L’Dor 

Dnipro-Kehillah Project (DKP)  

FACES: CJP’s Fund to Aid Children and End Separation  

Hakol: An Israel Leadership Program 


Jewish Big Brothers Big Sisters (JBBBS)  

The JCCs of Greater Boston (acronym, see how they refer to themselves) 

Jewish Family & Children’s Service (JF&CS)  

Jewish Federations of North America (JFNA) 

Jewish Learning and Engagement Commission (JLE)  

Jewish Teen Initiative (JTI) 

Jewish Vocational Service (JVS) 

The King Solomon Society, see Affinities, Real Estate, Construction & Design 

Lion of Judah, see Affinities, Women’s Philanthropy 

The Maimonides Society, see Affinities, Healthcare Professions  

Mental Health Access powered by CJP 

The Miriam Fund 

The Pomegranate Society, see Affinities, Women’s Philanthropy Project Inspire

Strategic Israel Engagement 

Social Justice (Tzedek)  


CJP-specific: approved and essential copy

Chair vs. Co-chair 

Both Chair and Co-chair are capitalized (see General approved usage, titles
When there is more than one chair, always use “Co-chair” except in leadership listings.
Annual Campaign Co-chair Adam L. Suttin opened the meeting.  
Adam L. Suttin, Co-chair of the Annual Campaign, opened the meeting. 

Jessica R. Myers 
Campe Goodman 
Chairs, 2022 Annual Campaign 

Charity Navigator description

You can give with confidence. CJP has consistently received the highest 4-star rating from Charity Navigator, reflecting our efficient and fiscally responsible management. On average over the past 10 years, more than 86 cents of every dollar spent by CJP supported programs and services for the community.  

Contact information

Default usage is to use first name only of staff person with their email address (always in lowercase) and direct extension. Staff person’s last name may be used if business requires it.  Within an email, we hyperlink on “Contact NAME” and do not spell out the email unless it is required.  Example: 

INCORRECT: For more information, contact Joan at or 617-457-8550.

CORRECT: For more information, email Joan or call her at 617-457-8550. 


Use the following approved copy when providing written directions: 

  1. Turn right onto
  2. Building/house/synagogue is on the left
  3. Spell out Street, Avenue, Boulevard
  4. Spell out city
  5. Do NOT include state, unless location is outside of MA
  6. Capitalize specific Routes (take Route 95 to the Mass Pike)
  7. Capitalize specific directions (take Route 95 North)
  8. Do NOT capitalize general directions (head north)
  9. South Area (cap both – refers to Southern Massachusetts)
  10. Metrowest – capitalize just the “M” and it’s always one word


No fees  
This is a free event.  

Single fee  
Event fees reflect the cost of goods and services provided and are not tax deductible. 

More than one tier of fees  
Event fees reflect the cost of goods and services provided and are not tax deductible. Donations in excess of the fees are tax deductible to the extent allowed by law. 

Dietary laws will be observed 

If a print piece: For more information, please contact [first name] at [email] or [phone number]. 
If an email: For more information, please contact [first name, email hyperlinked] or [phone number]. 

In case of bad weather, please call 617-457-8888 or visit for event updates. 

 Inclusion Statement  

CJP welcomes the participation of interfaith couples and families, and people of all abilities, backgrounds, and sexual orientations. 

Young Adult 
CJP, Greater Boston's Jewish Federation, brings together the people, partners, and resources to fulfill the most important needs and aspirations of our community. We welcome the participation of interfaith couples and families, and people of all abilities, backgrounds, and sexual orientations. 

Jewish Community Endowment Pool, LLP (JCEP)

Please spell out the full name before using the abbreviation. The “LLP” must always follow the full name when used. When spoken it is “Jay-sepp.”

Kraft Family Building

The building at which CJP’s offices are based must always be called the Kraft Family Building. Do not abbreviate or modify in anyway. Do not use alternate terms like “CJP’s offices” or “CJP headquarters.”

Leadership listings 

Judith A. Kaye 
Chair, Committee on Development 

Chairs, Committee Name 

Shira Goodman 
Chair, Board of Directors 

Rabbi Marc Baker 
President and CEO 

Jessica R. Myers 
Campe Goodman 
Chairs, 2022 Annual Campaign 

Names of the chairs in listings should be in alphabetical order by last name, EXCEPT for The Miriam Fund.  

If the title must be on two separate lines, there is no comma at the end of the first line. 

When referring to Rabbi Marc Baker, only use “Rabbi” in front of his name on the first mention. If his name is in an email subject/teaser, use Rabbi in the email body on the first mention as well. 

Mission Statement 

Our mission is to inspire and mobilize the diverse Boston Jewish community to engage in building communities of learning and action that strengthen Jewish life and improve the world. 

Social Justice (Tzedek) 

When we are referring to the proper name of our initiative we use: Social Justice (Tzedek) Initiative. (Social Justice comes first, Hebrew word italicized, all words begin with uppercase). 

When we are referring to our work in this area in general, we use: social justice (tzedek) work. (social justice come first, Hebrew word italicized, all words lowercase). 

Vision Statement 

Our community is a leader center of Jewish life, inspired by Boston’s unique intellectual and cultural heritage. Expansive, dynamic models of living and learning include everyone and provide meaningful connections to Judaism, the Jewish People, Israel, and the broader world. Networks of thriving Jewish institutions works collaboratively to strengthen our future. 

Frequently used Jewish terms


An important number in (particularly Ashkenazic) Jewish culture, signifying “life”. This comes from gematria, or Kabbalistic Hebrew numerology, in which Hebrew letters are each assigned a number; Chai, the word for life, adds up to 18 (chet is 8, yud is 10). Multiples of chai are traditional amounts in which to give gifts or charity. Other communities (particularly some Sephardim) give in multiples of 26, which is the gematria of the Tetragrammaton (name of God); some others give in round numbers plus one.

Ashkenazi Jews

(Ashkenazic, Ashkenazim) From the Hebrew word for Germany, an ethnic division of Jews of Eastern European descent.

bar mitzvah / bat mitzvah / b’nai mitzvah / b'mitzvah

Literally, “son/daughter/children of the commandments.” Children become accountable for upholding the mitzvot (commandments) at age 12-13 (traditionally 12 for girls, 13 for boys, but this varies). This is why we refer to it as “becoming bar mitzvah” instead of “being bar mitzvah- ed.” While children technically become b’nai mitzvah on their birthday, b’nai mitzvah ceremonies occur when a child is called to read from the Torah for the first time. Many communities are starting to use "b’mitzvah" to be more gender inclusive.


Grandmother, in Hebrew. Uppercase if referring to a particular person. Lowercase if referring to “grandmother,” in general.


Hebrew word for life.

challah (pl. challot)

Braided egg bread eaten on Shabbat and on holidays. During Rosh Hashanah, challah is braided into round shapes instead into loaves and eaten with honey.


Hebrew for “caring.”


Confidence, nerve, or audacity – can be used with both negative and positive connotations. From an article on Chabad, everyone needs “A sense of shame that prevents you from acting with chutzpah to do the wrong thing, and a sense of chutzpah that prevents you from being ashamed to do the right thing.


Lowercase diaspora when referring to the general dispersion of Jews across the world outside of the Land of Israel.

Uppercase Diaspora when referring to the dispersion after the Babylonian Exile (598/7-587/6 BCE).


Proper spelling of the top used in Hanukkah games. The four faces of the top are inscribed with the Hebrew letters N G H S in the diaspora. These letters give directions for the game but also stand for nes gadol hayah sham, a Hebrew phrase meaning “a great miracle happened there,” reminding of the miracle of the conquest of the Maccabees and of the oil that burned for eight days. In the Land of Israel, the last letter is P, standing for po, meaning “here."

d’var Torah (pl. divrei Torah)

Literally, “a word of Torah.” It’s a talk or an essay that interprets a text, particularly the parsha (Torah portion) of the week. Lowercase d, uppercase T.


Hebrew word for “evening.” Capitalized when used in conjunction with Shabbat or another holiday, indicating the night when that holiday begins, e.g. Kol Nidre is a service that occurs on Erev Yom Kippur.


CJP spelling (starting in 2017) of the eight-day winter holiday that begins on the 25th day of Kislev.


CJP spelling of the three-cornered cookie traditionally made for Purim.

Holocaust (also the Shoah)

Always capitalized. The Shoah (Hebrew for the catastrophe) is also a correct term, though less widely used. Some prefer this term due to the meaning of the Greek root for Holocaust, meaning “burnt sacrificial offering."

Jewish State

When used together, capitalize both words. Also known as the State of Israel.


An Aramaic prayer sequence recited in the synagogue service that includes thanksgiving, praise, and a prayer for universal peace. Most often refers to the Mourner’s Kaddish that is recited in memory of the dead.


Literally, “sanctification.” Also the name of a ceremony of prayer and blessing over wine at a meal that ushers in the Sabbath on Friday nights or another holiday.


Lowercase. Descriptor of food or people compliant with dietary laws and of the laws themselves. These laws forbid mixing dairy and meat and the eating of certain animals (e.g., shellfish, pork). Has migrated into English with a broader meaning.


A language incorporating elements of Spanish and Hebrew, developed by Jews in Spain.


One word. Descriptor of events from birth to death, from brit milah/bris to b’nai mitzvah to wedding to funerals.

L’Shanah Tovah

CJP spelling of the Rosh Hashanah greeting, meaning “for a good year.”


Unleavened Jewish bread. This spelling per AP Stylebook.

mazel tov

Literally “good luck,” but it’s for something that has already occurred – more like “What good luck!” rather than “may you have good luck.” Appropriate in situations one would say “congratulations” in English.


A ritual bath, also transliterated “mikvah.” Traditionally used for ritual immersion, including the conversion to Judaism; some progressive Jews use the mikveh to mark times of personal transition. The most well-known in Boston is Mayyim Hayyim.


A quorum of 10 adults required for certain religious obligations, including saying Kaddish. Traditionally, this is men over the age of 13. Some congregations require 10 people over the age of 13. Some require 10 men and 10 women to fulfill a minyan.

The Orthodox Union (OU)

Governing body of Orthodox synagogues in the U.S.


The weekly Torah portion. There are 54 weekly portions that will all be read over the course of the year, and some holidays have their own parsha. Each is named for the first important word of the parsha.

Passover, Pesach

An eight-day spring holiday that begins on the 15th day of Nisan. Commemorates the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt with seder dinners and refraining from eating chametz, or leavened foods.


A spring holiday in the month of Adar celebrating the deliverance of Persian Jews as told in the book of Esther. Marked by merriment and joy.

Rosh Hashanah

The Jewish New Year (literally, “head of the year”). Occurs in the seventh month (Tishrei) of the Hebrew Calendar. The beginning of the High Holidays and the Days of Awe.


Hebrew for “order.” It is not capitalized when used alone: “Did you go to a seder?” It is capitalized when it follows Passover: “My family holds a Passover Seder."

Sephardi Jews

(Sephardic, Sephardim) From the Hebrew word for Spain, an ethnic division of Jews who lived in Spain, the Mediterranean, and North Africa.


The Hebrew word for the Sabbath. Begins Friday at sundown, ends Saturday night. Traditionally observed as a time when work (and its many definitions) are prohibited. A common greeting: “Shabbat shalom,” or may you have a peaceful Sabbath. Known in Yiddish as Shabbos (see t vs. s).


“Peace” in Hebrew. Also used as a greeting, meaning “hello."


A common Jewish prayer said to celebrate special occasions.


Yiddish for synagogue.


An eight-day autumn harvest festival that begins on the 15th day of Tishrei. Involves creating booths and dwelling in them to commemorate the sheltering of the Israelites.

T vs. s

In Yiddish, many final “t” sounds in the original Hebrew words are pronounced as “s” and can be written as such: e.g., Shabbos (Shabbat), Succos (Sukkot), bris (brit milah).


Commentary on the Torah that also serves as the major compendium of civil and ceremonial law. Also known as the oral Torah.


A name for the complete Hebrew Bible that is an acronym of its components: Torah (Five books of Moses), Nevi’im (prophets), and Ketuvim (writings, such as Psalms, Proverbs, and the Song of Songs).

tikkun olam

Hebrew for “repair the world.” Use italicized, lowercase, and followed by its translation in parentheses.


The five books of Moses. Can be lowercase and italic when meaning “learning” rather than referring to the actual text.


Also transliterated “traif” or “treyf.” Any food that is not kosher, e.g., pork, shellfish, a cheeseburger.


Hebrew best translated as “the act of giving generously or in a meaningful way” in English. Its Hebrew root means “justice” – it is not charity that stems from kindness, but from righteousness and justice.


Hebrew for “justice,” often social justice

Union of Reform Judaism (URJ)

Governing body of Reform Judaism in the U.S.

United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism (USCJ)

Governing body of Conservative Judaism in the U.S.


A language incorporating elements of German and Hebrew, developed by Jews in Eastern Europe.

Yom Kippur

The Day of Atonement, falling ten days after Rosh Hashanah and the end of the Days of Awe. Involves a 25 hour fast for those who are physically able. Also known as Shabbat Shabbaton, or the Shabbat of Shabbats. Widely considered the holiest day of the year for Jews.


Grandfather, in Hebrew. Uppercase if referring to a particular person. Lowercase if referring to “grandfather,” in general.

(z”l), (zt”l)

Honorifics for the dead. Used after the first mention of his or her name. The parentheses are roman, while inside them is in italics.

(z”l) stands for zikhrono/zikhronah livrakha, “may his/her memory be a blessing.” It is used for non-rabbinical figure.

(zt”l) stands for zekher tzadik livrakha and means “may the memory of the righteous be a blessing."

General-approved usage: spelling and grammar

In general, CJP follows the AP Stylebook. Exceptions and frequent reference items are listed here

501 (c)(3)

IRS tax exempt status. In order to maintain this status, CJP must remain politically neutral

academic degrees

If mention of degrees is necessary to establish someone's credentials, the preferred form is to avoid an abbreviation and use instead a phrase such as: John Jones, who has a doctorate in psychology.

Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree, a master's, etc., but there is no possessive in Bachelor of Arts or Master of Science. Also: an associate degree (no possessive).

Use such abbreviations for earned degrees in leadership listings where appropriate, e.g., in the Health Professions Breakfast leadership listing.

When used after a name, an academic abbreviation is set off by commas.


Sarah Abramson, Ph.D., spoke

The following abbreviations are used to identify earned degrees. Phrases include periods and no spaces (except in the case of the MBA)

Bachelor of Arts: B.A.

Bachelor of Science: B.S.

Juris Doctor: J.D.

Master of Arts: M.A.

Master of Science: M.S.

Master of Business Administration: MBA

Master of Education: M.Ed.

Doctor of Education: Ed.D.

Doctor of Philosophy: Ph.D.

Doctor of Medicine: M.D.

Abbreviations follow normal rules about the definite article (a master’s degree, but an M.A.)


The first time you mention an organization, spell out the entire name and follow with the acronym in parentheses. After that, use the acronym only.

Example: When I joined Jewish Big Brothers Big Sisters (JBBBS), I wasn’t sure I would like it. Now when I talk about JBBBS, I encourage all my friends to volunteer.

Afghan / Afghani

The citizens of Afghanistan are Afghans. Similarly, it’s Afghan food, Afghan politics, and Afghan afghans. The only time to use “Afghani” is in reference to the unit of Afghan currency by that name. Afghans spend Afghanis.


Whenever possible, all lists should be in alphabetical order.

Abbreviations and acronyms: Spell out in lists. If space dictates using only the acronym or abbreviation, treat it as if it is spelled out unless it is a lexicon of abbreviations.


BHC is filed as Boston-Haifa Connection
JLE is filed as Jewish Learning and Engagement

Articles: disregard definite and indefinite articles unless it is considered an intrinsic part of the name.


The Boston Symphony Orchestra is filed under Boston
The Rashi School is filed under The

Names: if a pair has different last names, sort by the last name listed first.


Jennifer Abrams and Adam Schneider: Abrams, Jennifer
Jennifer Abrams Schneider and Adam Schneider: Schneider, Jennifer Abrams
Jennifer Abrams-Schneider and Adam Schneider: Abrams-Schneider, Jennifer
The Honorable and Mrs. Herbert Abrams: Abrams, Honorable

Punctuation: Ignore punctuation while alphabetizing.


Boston Children’s Hospital comes before B’nai Brith


see date and time.


Only use the ampersand symbol (&) if it is part of a proper name, e.g., Barnes & Noble, Lawyers & Accountants.


One word, not anti-Semitism.


see punctuation, hyphen.


Capitalize when part of a proper name or title. See titles.

Dave currently serves on the Board of Governors. Dave is a long-standing board member.


Hyphenate when it modifies another word, no hyphen when it does not modify another word. See punctuation, hyphen.

Boston-area Jews have long supported CJP
CJP is the largest Jewish charity in the Boston area

Bulleted lists

Capitalize the first word following the bullet. Whether a phrase or a complete sentence, use neither periods nor semicolons after each section unless the section contains two or more sentences.

  • Boston-area Jews have long supported CJP
  • CJP is the largest Jewish charity in the Boston area. We employ terrific people
  • CJP is located on High Street

headlines and titles (writing)
CJP style is to use sentence case rather than title case for all headlines, subheads, CTA buttons, and titles.
However, when the title is the proper name of a piece, it is capitalized.

The Miriam Fund: 18 years of doing things differently
Donor Impact Report

Capitalize and italicize “the” in a newspaper’s name if that is the way the publication prefers to be known.
Lowercase “the” before newspaper names if a story mentions several papers, some of which use “the” as part of the name and some of which do not.

Our speaker is a regular columnist with The Jerusalem Post. His book was reviewed in the Los Angeles Times
Have you seen Aviva’s recent op-ed in the Forward?

Proper nouns are capitalized. All other nouns are lowercase. Capitalize proper names of titles.
Continue to capitalize when not used as full proper name

Co-chair Darren Black opened the meeting
Darren Black, Co-chair of the event, opened the meeting. The Pomegranate Society and Friends Event

Do not capitalize when verbing the noun

Darren Black co-chaired the event
See also titles (personal and organizational).

Should always be lowercase


see punctuation.


see punctuation.


see titles.


One word, no hyphen.


COVID-19, the coronavirus pandemic, and the coronavirus (COVID-19) are all some of the ways we can reference it.

date and time

For virtual/hybrid events, add the time zone. Should look like:
Day, Date | Time ET

For in-person events, no need to add the time zone
Day, Date | Time

a.m./p.m. lowercase, periods between the letters. day/date/time Sunday, January 1, 2022 | 11:00 a.m.–1:00 p.m. ET

months always spell out

ranges use the en dash with no spaces

year only include for events November–February

departments and offices

see capitalization, see titles.


see numbers.

em dash

see punctuation.


An abbreviation for the Latin phrase exempli gratia (examples given). It is used to introduce an illustrative but non-exhaustive list. It is always followed by a comma.
Do not use “etc.” at the end of the list of examples as “e.g.” automatically implies that there are other examples (et cetera literally means “and others”).


I love many Jewish foods, e.g., challah, gefilte fish, and bagels.

See also i.e.


No hyphen, follows typical capitalization rules.


No hyphen, follows typical capitalization rules.
For CJP email rules, see CJP approved copy, contact information.

en dash

see punctuation.


No hyphen, follows typical capitalization rules.
Ethiopian Israeli, see punctuation, hyphen.


Former Soviet Union (FSU)

Spell out on first use, followed by FSU after first use.




Capitalize God in references to the deity of all monotheistic religions. Capitalize all noun references to the deity: God the Father, Holy Ghost, Holy Spirit, Allah, etc.
Use lowercase personal pronouns: he, him, thee, thou.
Lowercase gods and goddesses in references to the deities of polytheistic religions. Lowercase god, gods, and goddesses in literary devices: He made money his god.

Greater Boston area

Capital G, lowercase a. Use whole phrase to be inclusive of communities outside Boston proper.


One word, no hyphen, lowercase.

hors d’oeuvres

Correct spelling.


An abbreviation for the Latin phrase id est (it is). It is used to explain, clarify, or rephrase a statement. It is always followed by a comma.
In the rare case that it is used to introduce a list, the entire, exhaustive list must be used

Have you visited the best Jewish website, i.e.,, yet?
The Obama family had the cutest First Dogs in the White House, i.e., Bo and Sunny

See also e.g.


see also capitalization, nouns.


We break with AP style and use italics in the following ways:
Words in Hebrew or Yiddish (or other languages) that are not well-known (followed by English in parentheses).
During Pesach (Passover), my family attends a seder.
Publication names (books, television shows, movies, magazines, etc.)

Start Up Nation
The Office
Los Angeles Times
The New Yorker

see also: capitalization, newspapers.


Capital of Ukraine, pronounced KEE-yeev. A 2019 change to the AP stylebook, in line with the Ukrainian government’s preferred transliteration to English and increasing usage. The style for the food dish remains the same: chicken Kiev.

less than vs. fewer than

“Less than” is used for uncountable or mass nouns, while “fewer than” is used for countable nouns.
There is an exception: use “less than” for time, money, and distance.

I should eat fewer M&M’s (countable).
I see less clutter on my desk (can’t count individually).
I paid less than $400 (money exception).


Acronyms used to describe the community of people who don’t identify as heterosexual, straight, or cisgender. As the world gains a better understanding of people’s different sexual orientations and gender identities, the words and letters that we use to describe the community will continue to evolve.


One word.

more than vs. over

The AP style guide has been updated to allow both “more than” and “over” in all uses to indicate greater numerical value.


The event raised more than $550,000.
The event raised over $500,000.

names within a CJP article

Use the first and last name on first reference, and just the first name on second reference. If the story has two different people of the first name, use a last name as well.

non-governmental organizations (NGOs)



One word, no hyphen.


Spell out numerals one through nine, use numerals for 10 and above. Exception: when the number is describing a percentage, always spell out. Always spell out any number that begins a sentence.

Hyphenate years (20-year history) when providing a duration of time in history. For numbers greater than 999, use commas to demarcate.

For dollar figures equal to or more than one million dollars, present as $1 million; $10 billion, etc.
For dollar figures less than $1 million present as $900,000; $250; $9.99; $4 etc. Do not follow the numerals with the word “dollars.”
Use a comma within amounts equal to greater than $1,000.

Million can be denoted by MM (with a space between the numeral and the MM) when referencing financial numbers

We have reached our goal of $45 MM for our Annual Campaign.

We break with AP style and use numerals and the % symbol. Use decimals, not fractions.


Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence.

Join us: Our party will take place this Saturday!
The baker told us her secret ingredient: buttermilk.

Commas are used to set off phrases that are inessential to the structure of the sentence or that can stand on their own, elements in a series, or to demarcate numbers.

CJP style dictates use of the Oxford comma in series.


Inessential phrase: I painted the room my favorite color, which is blue.
Stand on their own: I painted the room my favorite color, and I love it! In a series: The primary colors are red, yellow, and blue.
Numbers: I love the band 10,000 Maniacs.

Common pitfalls:

Ranges: There is no comma in a “from x to y” phrase
Phrases that can’t quite stand on their own: No comma in “I painted the room my favorite color and love it.”
“That” does not take a comma – it is an essential descriptor. “Which” does take a comma.


Used to shorten quotations: space, three periods, space.

“It is a truth universally acknowledged that a … man … must be in want of a wife.”

Used to trail off a thought: no space, three periods, space.

“What is that word? I wonder… ”

em dash

Used as a break in a sentence. Surrounded by spaces. Also used when attributing a quote.


She wondered if it was true — and it was!

Microsoft Office shortcut: CTRL ALT subtraction sign on the number pad

en dash

Used to bridge ranges. No spaces.


Young adults, ages 22–45 10:00 a.m.–1:00 p.m. ET

Microsoft Office shortcut: CTRL subtraction sign on the number pad


Particularly used when joining double modifiers, or when two words are modifying something else. Do not use if the first word in the multiple modifier is an adverb ending in -ly


family-friendly event

blue-green color

happily married couple

tax-deductible donation

quotation marks

“” Double quotes are used in American English. ‘’ Single quotes refer to quotes within quotes.


All capitals. Do not use the word “please” before RSVP to avoid redundancy.

Street, Avenue, Boulevard

Spell out. Capitalize when part of a proper noun phrase.


I work at 126 High Street

See also CJP approved and essential copy, directions.

tax deductible

see punctuation, hyphen.

that vs. which

see punctuation, comma.


see capitalization, titles.


American usage calls for toward, no s.


Always include a period after both initials.


see also, capitalization, urls.
Do not include http:// or www.


see also capitalization, nouns.
Always lowercase.


see also capitalization, nouns.
Always lowercase.